Brain Tumour Types
Brain Tumour Types
Your doctor may test a sample of the tumour to find out the grade and the type of tumour and if it has cell changes called bio-markers. This allows a professional to identify the brain tumour types and how to move forward.
This gives your doctor information about how the tumour may develop and helps them to plan your treatment.
The grade of the tumour affects how slowly or quickly it may grow. Grade 1 and 2 (low-grade) tumours grow slowly. Grade 3 and 4 (high-grade) tumours grow more quickly.
There are many different types of primary brain tumour. These are often named after the cell or the part of the brain they start in. Different tumour types may affect different areas of the brain. Some types are usually high-grade and others are low-grade.
The most common types are called glioma (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or ependymoma) and meningioma. Rarer types include acoustic neuroma, lymphoma, haemangioblastoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma and tumours of the pineal gland, pituitary gland or spinal cord.
Some brain tumour types are tested to check for cell changes called biomarkers. Biomarkers may tell your doctor which treatment is most likely to be effective and how the tumour may develop.
Brain Tumour Types (Primary)
Brain tumours are often named after the cell they develop from or the part of the brain they start in.
More than half of all primary brain tumours are gliomas. These tumours develop from the supporting cells (glial cells) in the brain or spinal cord.
Different types of glioma are named after the different types of glial cell.
Astrocytoma is the most common glioma. It develops from star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes. Astrocytomas can be grade 1 to 4. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a type of grade 4 astrocytoma.
Oligodendroglioma develops from a type of glial cell called an oligodendrocyte. These cells make up the fatty covering of nerve cells.
There are two main grades of these tumours – grade 2 and grade 3.
Ependymoma develops from a type of glial cell called ependymal cells.
These cells line the fluid-filled spaces in the brain (ventricles) and the centre of the spinal cord.
Ependymomas can be grade 1 to 3. They are usually low-grade, slow-growing tumours.
Nearly a quarter (25%) of all primary brain tumours are meningiomas. These tumours start in the tissues that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord (the meninges).
Meningiomas can be grade 1 to 3. They are usually low-grade, slow-growing tumours but a small number are faster growing.
These tumours (also called vestibular schwannomas) usually grow slowly. They develop from the cranial nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain, called the acoustic nerve.
People with a genetic condition called Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) have a higher risk of developing this type of tumour.
Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL)
A lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system which is part of the body’s immune system and helps fight infection. Lymphomas that start in the brain or spinal cord are called primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL). They are rare and usually grow quickly.
You may have slightly different tests and treatment for PCNSL.
Haemangioblastoma is a rare, slow-growing tumour that usually affects the cerebellum and sometimes the brain stem or spinal cord. It develops from the cells lining the blood vessels in the brain.
Medulloblastoma is a high-grade tumour that develops in the cerebellum.
This tumour is rare in adults but is one of the most common brain tumours in children.
Pineal Region Tumours
These rare tumours affect the pineal gland in the centre of the brain. There are different types of pineal region tumours. The most common one is a germ cell tumour.
Pituitary Gland Tumours
The most common tumours of the pituitary gland are adenomas. They are slow-growing tumours that can affect how the pituitary gland produces hormones.
These tumours affect an area above the pituitary gland and near the cranial nerve from the eyes to the brain. They are rare and usually slow-growing. They can affect how the pituitary gland produces hormones and cause problems with eyesight.
Spinal Cord Tumours
Several types of tumour can start in the spinal cord but this is rare. These tumours usually cause problems by pressing on the nerves of the spinal cord.
You may have slightly different tests and treatment for a tumour in the spinal cord.